Blood sugar is the amount of glucose in the blood. Glucose, transported via the bloodstream, is the primary source of energy for the body's cells.
Blood sugar concentration, or glucose level, is tightly regulated in the human body. Normally, the blood glucose level is maintained between about 4 and 6 mmol/L. Normal blood glucose level (homoeostasis) is about 90mg/100ml or 5mM. The total measurement of glucose in the circulating blood is therefore about 3.3 to 7g (assuming an ordinary adult blood volume of 5 liters). Glucose levels rise after meals and are usually lowest in the morning, before the first meal of the day.
Failure to maintain blood glucose in the normal range leads to conditions of persistently high (hyperglycemia) or low (hypoglycemia) blood sugar. Diabetes mellitus, characterized by persistent hyperglycemia of several causes, is the most prominent disease related to failure of blood sugar regulation.