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Indoles are powerful phytonutrients found in cruciferous vegetables that help to protect against hormone-dependent cancers including breast cancer and colon cancer.

Indoles turn off specific estrogen hormones that may encourage tumor growth.


Michnovicz, J.J. and Bradlow, H.L. 1991. Altered estrogen metabolism and excretion in humans following consumption of indole carbinol. Nutr. Cancer 16: 59-66, Dashwood, R.H. 1998. Indol-3-carbinol Anticarcinogen or tumor promoter in Brassica vegetables. Chem.-Biol. Ineractions 110: 1-5.Thomson CA, Green TL. Cruciferous vegetables and cancer prevention. In: Watson RR, ed. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in Cancer Prevention. Ames, IA Iowa State Press;2003;55-86. Talalay P & Fahey JW. Phytochemicals from cruciferous plants protect against cancer by modulating carcinogen metabolism. J Nutr. 2001;131:3027S-33S.


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